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A Very Political Podcast.

History might be written by the winners, but presidential politics is often shaped by the Long Shots. In a new podcast series from Inside Voices, veteran journalist Conor Powell and executive producer Gary Scott explore eight presidential candidates who lost the race for the White House but permanently changed America’s political landscape – right up to today.

Available on:

George Wallace: The Segregationist

The 1972 campaign of George Wallace, an open segregations who ran for president in the party of Civil Rights.

When Alabama Governor and Democratic candidate George Wallace was shot on the campaign trail, the assassination attempt so rattled the White House that President Richard Nixon hatched a criminal scheme to derail Wallace’s surging political momentum and embarrass the Democratic Party. With never before heard Nixon White House audio, Long Shots uncovers a little-known criminal conspiracy hatched in the Oval Office a month before the bungled break-in at the Watergate Hotel. WARNING: Includes a historical figure's use of a racial epithet.

George Wallace: The Segregationist Transcript

PART I:

THERE ARE FEW PEOPLE IN HISTORY WHERE A SINGLE SENTENCE CAPTURES EVERYTHING ABOUT THEM.

*** George Wallace ***
“I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow. Segregation forever”

ALABAMA GOVERNOR GEORGE WALLACE – POPULIST, DEMAGOGUE, BIGOT – IS ONE OF THOSE RARE PEOPLE.

HIS DECLARATION OF SUPPORT FOR SEGREGATION IN 1963, CEMENTED HIM AS THE VOICE OF WHITE RESISTANCE IN THE 1960S

GEORGE WALLACE A LIFE LONG DEMOCRAT -HE WAS ON THE FRINGES OF THE PARTY OF CIVIL RIGHTS.
STILL HE RAN FOR PRESIDENT FOUR TIMES- AND DID SURPRISINGLY WELL WITH A VILE COCKTAIL OF RACISM AND RAGE.

DURING THIS THIRD RUN AT THE PRESIDENCY, ON MAY FIFTEENTH, 1972, WALLACE WAS CAMPAIGNING IN THE SUBURBAN COMMUNITY OF LAUREL, MARYLAND.

***Laurel Intro**
“ladies and gentlemen, the next president of the United States. The honorable George Wallace.”

TWO MONTHS EARLIER HE SHOCKED THE POLITICAL ESTABLISHMENT, WINNING THE FLORIDA PRIMARY BY OPPOSING THE SUPREME COURT ORDER POLICY OF DESEGREGATION BUSING AND ATTACKING QUOTE POINTY-HEADED INTELLECTUALS WHO FASHIONED IT.

HE WOULD WIN TENNESSEE AND NORTH CAROLINA TOO – AND APPEARED TO BE A SERIOUS CONTENDER TO WIN THE DEMOCRATIC NOMINATION DESPITE HIS RESISTANCE TO THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.

AMONG THE SEVERAL THOUSAND PEOPLE ON HAND THAT MAY SPRING DAY WAS A RECENT COLLEGE GRADUATE AND YOUNG REPORTER NAMED KAREN YENGICH

***Karen Yengich ***
“That was my first day of work at the Laurel News Leader.”

SHE ARRIVED AT WORK THAT MORNING AND MUCH TO HER SURPRISE WAS TOLD TO COVER WALLACE’S CAMPAIGN RALLY.

***Karen Yengich***
I just thought it was going to be a small sleepy town to cover news stories. I didn’t expect a national figure to come in to town and holding a campaign rally.

IT WAS A SUNNY AND BEAUTIFUL AFTERNOON.
WALLACE SPOKE FOR MORE THAN 20 MINUTES, TAPING INTO THE DUAL VEIN OF WHITE RACIAL RESENTMENT AND SENSELESSNESS OF BUSING.

HE CONCLUDED HIS SPEECH BY TELLING THE CROWD A VOTE FOR GEORGE WALLACE IS A VOTE FOR THE AVERAGE CITIZEN.

WALLACE THEN TOOK OFF HIS JACKET AND THEN BEGAN TO SHAKE HANDS WITH SUPPORTERS AND CURIOUS ONLOOKERS.

***Karen Yengich***
He walked down the stairs and his wife Cornelia was with him. And he just started shaking hands in the crowd and we couldn’t really at that time and that is when the shots rang out.

***Shooting 1***
“shoots and scream”

***Karen Yengich**
Everybody screamed and panicked and ran away from the stage area.

***Karen Yengich**
I didn’t run away, I tried to fight the crowd so I could get up forward to see what happened.

***Karen Yengich***
You could see Gov Wallace laying on the ground, and his wife Cornelia was hanging over him.

WALLACE HAD BEEN SHOT FIVE TIMES IN THE CHEST AND ABDOMEN BY A 21-YEAR-OLD, BLOND HAIR, DRIFTER FROM MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, NAMED ARTHUR BREMMER.

AS PARAMEDICS RUSH TO THE SITE, CORNELIA HELD WALLACE IN HER ARMS, AS HIS BLOOD SOAKED HER BEIGE SUIT.

WALLACE WAS RUSHED TO THE HOSPITAL AND BREMMER WAS IMMEDIATELY ARRESTED.

WHAT HAPPENS NEXT IS A STORY YOU’VE NEVER HEARD. ALMOST NO ONE KNOWS IT. ITS BEEN OVERLOOKED AND FORGOTTEN.

JUST ONE MONTH BEFORE THE WATERGATE BREAK IN, THE WALLACE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT SET IN MOTION A CRIMINAL PLOT THAT COULD HAVE TAKEN DOWN PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON BEFORE HIS HENCHMEN EVEN ENTERED THE WATERGATE HOTEL.

BUT OUR STORY STARTS WITH GEORGE WALLACE AND HIS OUTSIDER CAMPAIGN TO BE PRESIDENT.

PART II:
BORN IN 1919, IN SOUTHEASTERN ALABAMA GEORGE WALLACE DIDN’T START OUT AS A RACE BAITING POPULIST.

HE ENTERED POLITICAL LIFE DETERMINED TO CHAMPION THE UNDERDOG – EARNING A REPUTATION AS A POLITICIAN AND JUDGE WHO TREATED BOTH POOR WHITES AND BLACKS WITH RESPECT.

*** Dr Dan Carter*** 00:17- 00:40
Wallace started out as a progressive politician in post WWII Alabama. Until the mid 1950s he was really regarded as part of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party such as it was in Alabama.”

ACCORDING TO WALLACE’S BIOGRAPHER – PROFESSOR DAN CARTER – THE AMBITIOUS POLITICIAN ACTIVELY SOUGHT THE SUPPORT OF THE BLACK COMMUNITY EARLY IN HIS POLITICAL CAREER.
EVEN VOLUNTEERING TO SERVE ON THE TUSKEGEE BOARD OF TRUSTEES –ONE OF THE COUNTRY’S MOST PRESTIGIOUS AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGES.

HISTORIAN LUKE NITCHER SAY WALLACE STARTED OUT AS A HYBRID DEMOCRAT.

***Luke Nitcher***
He doesn’t really fit in these clean paradigms between Southern Conservative Northern Liberal.
***Luke Nitcher***
I think Wallace saw himself as a traditional Southern Democrat. I don’t mean conservative. If you look at his spending record in Alabama if you look at, he embraced the majority of the New Deal and the welfare state.

THE MODERATE AND AT TIMES PROGRESSIVE WALLACE, HOWEVER, DIDN’T SURVIVE HIS OWN AMBITIONS.

HE LATER LEARNED A CRUCIAL LESSON AFTER RUNNING AND LOSING THE ELECTION FOR GOVERNOR IN 1958 TO A HARDLINE SEGREGATIONIST WHO HAD THE BACKING OF THE KU KLUX KLAN.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
The only people in the middle of the road were dead armadillos as they say in Texas and yellow stripes and that is it. There was no place for a politician to be a moderate or middle of the roader in the 1950s. So he switched.

FOLLOWING THAT FAILED BID TO BE ALABAMA’S GOVERNOR, WALLACE SET OUT TO RE-INVENTED HIS POLITICAL BRAND – FAMOUSLY TELLING AIDES

*** Dr Dan Carter***
John Patterson who was his opponent out niggered me and I will never be out niggered me again.

GONE WAS THE GEORGE WALLACE WHO WORKED WITH THE NAACP AND WHO HAD SPOKEN SOBERLY ABOUT WHAT NEEDED TO BE DONE.

IN HIS NEXT RUN FOR GOVERNOR FOUR YEARS LATER, WALLACE DEPLOYED FIERY POLITICAL SPEECHES DRIPPING WITH SARCASM AND RIDICULE.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
Maybe we might not think it was very funny today but in the 1950s his audience sure did

AFTER EASILY WINNING THE GOVERNORSHIP IN 1962, WALLACE MOVED TO FULFILL HIS CAMPAIGN PROMISE TO DEFEND SEGREGATION AT ALL COSTS, EVEN IF IT MEANT DEFYING COURT ORDERS.

AT THE TIME, ALABAMA WAS THE LONE STATE IN THE NATION WITH TOTALLY SEGREGATE SCHOOLS.
FEDERAL COURTS HAD RULED, REPEATEDLY, ALABAMA MUST INTEGRATE.

WALLACE REFUSED REMEMBERS FORMER NEW YORK TIMES REPORTER DRUMMOND AYRES

***B Drummond Ayres ***
Nobody else went down the path that George Wallace went down when it came to schools and integration

ON JUNE ELEVENTH, 1963, WALLACE STAGED A DRAMATIC POLITICAL STANDOFF WITH THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION.

STANDING IN THE DOOR OF THE FORSTER AUDITORIUM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA, WALLACE BLOCKED THE ENTRY OF TWO BLACK STUDENTS – VIVIAN MALONE AND JAMES HOOD THAT A FEDERAL JUDGE HAD ORDER BE ALLOWED TO ENROLL IN THE ALL WHITE UNIVERSITY.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
He learned as the cliché goes a picture is worth a thousand words and even though he had given in to the Federal government and to the demands for school desegregation at the University of Alabama what people saw on Television was him defiantly was him standing against the national government and that was what really put him on the map nationally.

PART III:

WALLACE’S PRO-SEGREGATION STANCE HAD MADE HIM A PARIAH WITHIN THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY – WHICH HAD SPENT THE LAST DECADE FIGHTING FOR CIVIL RIGHTS.

BUT HIS OPPOSITION TO CIVIL RIGHTS HAD ALSO MADE HIM A HERO TO MANY – BOTH ABOVE AND BELOW THE MASON DIXON LINE.

***B Drummond Ayres ***
He could be charming and he could be downright dangerous

AFTER FAILING TO WIN THE DEMOCRATIC NOMINATION IN 1964 AGAINST LYNDON JOHNSON, WALLACE ANNOUNCED A THIRD-PARTY RUN FOR THE PRESIDENCY IN 1968.

***Dr Dan Carter**
His announcement was on I think page 23 of the New York Times
1968 WAS AS TRAUMATIC AS ANY YEAR IN AMERICAN HISTORY.
***Protest****
Peace now Peace Now Peace now Peace Now.
THE COUNTRY WAS TORN APART BY ANTI WAR PROTESTS, CIVIL RIGHT BATTLES AND THE ASSASSINATIONS OF MARTIN LUTHER KING JUNIOR AND ROBERT F KENNEDY.
***Dr Dan Carter***
It felt as though America was coming apart at the seams

***New Reel***
“Draft Cards burnings became common. With chants of hell no we wont go became the theme of the protest generation.

***Walter Cronkite***
“Dr Martin Luther King, the apostle of non-violence in the civil rights movement has been shot to death in Memphis Tennessee.

***Kennedy Shot**
Bang, Sen Kennedy has been shot is that really possible.”
WALLACE CAMPAIGNED THAT SUMMER ON A RACE BASED POPULIST PLATFORM OF STATES RIGHTS AND LAW AND ORDER.
**** George Wallace ***
“it is a sad commentary when you cannot walk in the streets and in the parks of the large cities of this country. And if you go out of this building tonight and somebody knocks you on the head the person who knocked you on the head is out of jail before you get out of the hospital
HE RAN AS AN OUTSIDER, AND RAILED AGAINST COMMUNISTS, DEMOCRATS, REPUBLICANS AND LONG-HAIRED HIPPIES.
*** George Wallace ***
“these are the types of folks people are sick and tired of in country all over the United States.
WALLACE’S CAMPAIGN EVENTS WERE CHAOTIC, VIOLENT – AND REGULARLY INTERRUPTED BY PROTESTORS WHO CHANTED “SIEG HI-IL” AND MOCKINGLY RAISED THEIR HANDS IN THE NAZI SALUTE.
*** George Wallace ****
“Wallace has the courage to stand up for America, give him your support.”
BLUE COLLAR AND SOUTHERN VOTERS FLOCKED TO HIM- AND HIS RHETORIC VOWING TO STAND UP FOR AMERICA.
*** George Wallace ***
They have never paid any attention to anything the people of your state of my state said or did in the past. They ignored us and looked down their nose at us and called us everything under the sun. I am sick and tired of it and I resent it.
BY THE FALL OF 1968, BOTH THE REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC NOMINEES RICHARD NIXON AND HUBERT HUMPHREY BEGAN TO CO-OPT SOME OF HIS MESSAGE.
A LONG TIME PROGRESSIVE LIBERAL, HUMPHREY GAVE A SPEECH ON LAW AND ORDER.
WHILE NIXON APPEALED TO MIDDLE CLASS WHITES WHO WERE ANGRY ABOUT DESEGREGATION.
WALLACE HOPED TO PREVENT BOTH NIXON AND HUMPHREY FROM WINNING A MAJORITY IN THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE AND THUS THROWING THE ELECTION TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, WHERE ANYTHING COULD HAPPEN.
IT ALMOST WORKED.
*** Dr Dan Carter***
Running as an independent with virtually no financial support except from small contribution he had come within a few thousand votes of throwing the election into the House of Representatives.

NIXON WON THE ELECTION, BUT WALLACE DID SURPRISINGLY WELL FOR A THIRD-PARTY CANDIDATE – WINNING MORE THAN TEN MILLION VOTES AND FIVE SOUTHERN STATES -CLAIMING 46 ELECTORAL VOTES.
ONE OF THE BEST SHOWINGS BY A THIRD-PARTY CANDIDATE EVER.

***Luke Nitcher***
Wallace’s ten million votes denied Nixon the ability to carry a number of Southern States that Eisenhower and Nixon carried in 52 and 56

***Luke Nitcher***
Nixon saw Wallace as a symbol. A symbol at a major turning point politically in the south.

WALLACE WOULD HEAD BACK TO ALABAMA AND RUN FOR GOVERNOR AGAIN IN 1970

ALMOST IMMEDIATELY AFTER BEING RE-ELECTED, HE STARTED CAMPAIGN FOR HIS NEXT PRESIDENTIAL RUN IN 1972.
SO TOO WOULD RICHARD NIXON.

***Luke Nitcher***
President Nixon consider Gov Wallace to be among his foremost contenders in terms of political rivals, even advisories
*** Dr Dan Carter***
Richard Nixon concluded at the end of the 1968 campaign that his greatest threat to re-election in 1972 would come from another third party run by George Wallace.

NIXON WAS DETERMINED TO PREVENT WALLACE FROM ONCE AGAIN THREATING HIS ELECTION.

PART IV:

WALLACE LOST MORE THAN JUST THE ELECTION IN 1968, HIS WIFE OF TWENTY-FIVE YEARS LURLEEN, THEN SERVING AS ALABAMA’S GOVERNOR, DIED OF CANCER DURING WALLACE’S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN.

WHEN HE RETURNED HOME TO ALABAMA AFTER THE CAMPAIGN, HE WAS A WIDOWER AND SINGLE FATHER OF FOUR.
HE SOON MET AND MARRIED CORNELIA SNIVELY, A WATERSKIING CHAMPION AND LOCAL BEAUTY.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
She was from an old Alabama political family and very savvy and very beautiful.

CORNELIA BECAME ONE OF HIS CLOSEST POLITICAL ADVISORS – SHE HELPED, OR AT LEAST TRIED TO, MODERNIZE WALLACE’S PERSONAL AND POLITICAL MESSAGE.

***B Drumond Ayres ***
There was a lot of Good old Boy in him

*** Dr Dan Carter***
He had a reputation as looking like a deep South mortician. With his black suits and his brill cream hair

*** Dr Dan Carter***
She got him the latest fashions and got him a hair stylist for him.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
As one of his advisors said, prettied them up, gussied him up

WITH A NEW STYLISH LOOK, AND A DYNAMIC YOUNGER WIFE, SOME BEGAN TO COMPARE THE WALLACES TO JOHN AND JACKIE KENNEDY, DUBBING ALABAMA, THE CAMELOT OF THE SOUTH.

WHICH WAS PROBABLY A BIT OF A STRETCH. BUT HIGHLIGHTS THE IMPRESSION THEY WERE MAKING.

CORNELIA ALSO ENCOURAGED HIM TONE DOWN HIS INFLAMMATORY RHETORIC HEADING INTO THE 1972 CAMPAIGN – THE IDEA WAS MORE POLITICAL MESSAGE, FEWER RIOTS.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
Wallace comes across as somebody who is angry. Who represents the forgotten American. As Nixon thought he alone should represent but he was not the same candidate he was in 1968.

AS 1972 APPROACHED, WALLACE WAS WEIGHING HIS CAMPAIGN OPTIONS.

RUN AS A LONGSHOT IN THE DEMOCRAT PARTY, OR TRY ONCE AGAIN AS AN UNDERFUNDED THIRD-PARTY CANDIDATE.

THIS SECOND OPTION TERRIFIED NIXON. WHO FEARED A WALLACE THIRD PARTY RUN WOULD DAMAGE HIS OWN RE-ELECTION PROSPECTS.

***Luke Nitcher***
Nixon saw Wallace was kind of positioned at the right time and the right place while the South was shifting. I think Nixon wasn’t quite sure where it was going to shift in the next election. His re-election in 1972 so he treated Wallace very seriously and very carefully

AT THE SAME TIME, THE IRS WAS INVESTIGATING WALLACE AND HIS BROTHER GERALD.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
Richard Nixon’s Justice Department had been investigating Wallace’s brother who was a fixer and incredibly corrupt.

FOR MOST OF GEORGE WALLACE’S POLITICAL CAREER, GERALD HAD BEEN THE MONEY MAN.

NOT ONLY RAISING FUNDS FOR HIS BROTHER’S POLITICAL AMBITIONS
BUT ALSO FOR HIMSELF -OFTEN FROM STATE CONTRACTORS. THINK OF HIM AS MR. TEN PERCENT.

THE WALLACE’S FINANCIAL DEALINGS, PARTICULARLY GERALD’S PART OWNERSHIP OF AN ASPHALT COMPANY WITH SIGNIFICANT STATE CONTRACTS, HAD CAUGHT THE EYE OF THE FEDERAL AGENTS.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
There were definite conversations between the Nixon People and the Wallace people about whether or not Wallace’s brother Gerald would be prosecuted

IN MAY OF 1971, PRESIDENT NIXON TRAVELED ALABAMA TO TAKE PART IN THE GROUND BREAKING CEREMONY OF THE TENNESSEE-TOMBIGBEE WATER WAY.

THE 253-MILE CANAL IS THE LARGEST MAN-MADE WATERWAY EVER BUILT IN THE U-S.

DURING THE TRIP, GEORGE AND GERALD MET WITH THE NIXON TEAM, INCLUDING POST MASTER GENERAL WINTON BLOUNT, A FELLOW ALABAMAN. AND LINE OF DIALOGUE OPENED BETWEEN THE TWO CAMPS.

7 MONTHS LATER, THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT DROPPED ITS INVESTIGATION OF GERALD WALLACE,
SHORTLY AFTERWARDS, GEORGE WALLACE ANNOUNCED HE WOULD FORGO A THIRD-PARTY CAMPAIGN, AND RUN INSTEAD AS A DEMOCRAT.

***Dr Dan Carter***
Running as a democrat, it was like stepping, into stepping into the Democratic party as a pyromaniac with a gasoline can full of gasoline to throw on the fire.

GIVEN NIXON’S FEAR OF WALLACE AND THE PRESIDENT’S AFFINITY FOR DIRTY POLITICS.
IT SEEMS MORE THAN LIKELY, THIS WASN’T SOME COINCIDENCE, AND A DEAL HAD BEEN CUT.

PART V:

IN 1954, THE U-S SUPREME COURT UNANIMOUSLY RULED THAT SEGREGATED SCHOOLS WERE UNCONSTITUTIONAL.

BROWN VERSUS THE BOARD OF EDUCATION SET IN MOTION THE MODERN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, AND OPPOSITION TO IT LAUNCHED GEORGE WALLACE’S POLITICAL CAREER.

BY 1972, THE ISSUE OF DESEGREGATION, WAS STILL FRONT AND CENTER IN AMERICAN POLITICS.

JUST A YEAR BEFORE, THE SUPREME COURT UNANIMOUSLY UPHELD EFFORTS TO BUS WHITE STUDENTS TO MINORITY SCHOOLS, AND BLACK AND LATINO STUDENTS TO WHITE SCHOOLS.

THE FORCED BUSING POLICY WAS CONTROVERSIAL AND DIVISIVE.
GEORGE WALLACE SEIZED ON THE ISSUE EARLY IN THE DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY.

*** George Wallace ***
“this matter that they have come up with to bus little children to achieve racial balance is the most asinine, atrocious, callous thing I have ever heard of in the United States

THE PARTY OF CIVIL RIGHTS WAS ONCE AGAIN FACING A FEROCIOUS INTERNAL BATTLE BETWEEN WALLACE AND ITS MORE LIBERAL WING.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
The other Democrats were like deer frozen in the headlamps of an oncoming car.
It was extraordinarily difficult for them to take a position. They knew busing was extremely unpopular

48 YEARS AGO, LIKE TODAY, AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE A KEY VOTING BLOCK IN THE DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY.

SO NEITHER SENATOR GEORGE MCGOVERN NOR FORMER VICE PRESIDENT HUBERT HUMPHREY – WALLACE’S MAIN COMPETITION FOR THE NOMINATION – COULD AFFORD TO ALIENATE THEM

HOWEVER, BY SUPPORTING FORCED BUSING, THEY TURNED AWAY WHITE WORKING-CLASS VOTERS.

MANY OF THESE DISILLUSIONED WHITES TURNED TO WALLACE AS HE RAILED AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT POLICES DESIGNED TO HELP BLACKS

***B Drummond Ayres ***
Ultimately with George Wallace it always come back to the race element
***B Drummond Ayres ***
Essentially he was playing to people who felt they weren’t getting all out of life they should be getting.

WALLACE NOT ONLY USED FORCED BUSING AS AN ISSUED TO PRESSURE HIS OWN DEMOCRATIC OPPONENTS -BUT HE TURNED UP THE HEAT NIXON AS WELL.

*** George Wallace ***
“I believe if I win the Florida primary that Mr. Nixon himself will step in and stop the busing of school children throughout the United States.

WALLACE WOULD COAST TO VICTORY IN FLORIDA ON THE BACK OF HIS ANTI-BUSING POSITION. WINNING EVERY COUNTY IN THE STATE BUT MIAMI-DADE.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
If you look at voting returns. A heck of a lot of middle class, upper middle-class suburbanite voted for Wallace

THE FORCED BUSING GALVANIZED A WAVE OF NEW SUPPORTERS

*** Dr Dan Carter***
Although most white American outside of the South may not have been enthusiastic about segregation, or the kind of raw racism in the South, they were not the least bit enthusiastic about busing.

WALLACE’S VICTORY PUT NIXON- THE WANT-A-BE UNIFIER- IN A DIFFICULT POLITICAL POSITION IN THE SPRING OF 1972. PROF CARTER EXPLAINS, NIXON’S POLITICAL DILEMMA.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
There was a lot of discussion with his aides, in which they said you got to get on the right side of the bussing issue and he said no.

TWO DAYS AFTER WALLACE’S DOMINATING VICTORY IN FLORIDA, PRESIDENT NIXON REALIZED THE POTENTIAL OF BUSING AS AN ISSUE, AND QUICKLY SEIZED IT AS HIS OWN DURING A PRIME-TIME NATIONWIDE ADDRESS.

***Richard Nixon ***
“I am opposed to busing for the purpose of achieving racial balance in our schools

***Richard Nixon ***
“I am sending a special message to the congress tomorrow urging immediate consideration and action.”
“First, I shall propose legislation that would call an immediate halt all new busing orders by federal courts. A moratorium on new busing.”

*** Dr Dan Carter***
He in effect ended up dancing to George Wallace’s tune. But he didn’t have any choice at that point.

FOR THE NEXT MONTH, ON THE STRENGTH OF HIS OPPOSITION TO BUSING AND RESISTANCE TO ELITES, WALLACE WOULD DO WELL IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES ACROSS THE COUNTRY. NOTCHING A STRING OF SECOND PLACE SHOWINGS IN WISCONSIN, PENNSYLVANIA AND INDIANA.

BEFORE THE RACE TURNED TO MARYLAND, WALLACE SECURED OUTRIGHT VICTORIES IN TENNESSEE AND NORTH CAROLINA.

BY THE TIME HE ARRIVED MARYLAND, WALLACE’S CAMPAIGN WAS HITTING ON ALL CYLINDERS WITH A POLITICALLY DIVISIVE ISSUE THAT SUPERCHARGED THE GRIEVANCES OF WHITE AMERICA

AS HE FINISHED THE SECOND OF HIS TWO CAMPAIGN RALLIES ON THAT FATEFUL MAY DAY IN MARYLAND, WALLACE WAS SHOT BY ARTHUR BREMMER.

***SOT***
“shoots and scream”

***ABC News Wallace***
“George Wallace was shot down this afternoon as he was campaigning in Maryland not far from Washington.”

JUST AS WALLACE’S INSURGENT CAMPAIGN WAS GAINING STEAM -IT ENDED AS VIOLENTLY AS HIS RHETORIC ENCOURAGED

HE WOULD SURVIVE THE ASSASSINS BULLETS BUT THE SHOOTING WOULD SET IN MOTION A CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY THAT WAS CONCOCTED THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

PART VI:

**** Richard Nixon **** WHT1-024-083
“We got a problem. You hear about Wallace.”

SHORTLY AFTER THE SHOOTING, NIXON’S AND HIS AIDES, INCLUDING CHIEF OF STAFF H-R HALDEMAN, DEPUTY COMMUNICATIONS DIRECTOR KENNETH CLAWSON AND WHITE HOUSE COUNSEL CHARLES COLSON ARE HEARD ON THE WHITE HOUSE TAPES TALKING ABOUT WALLACE.

*** Richard Nixon *** WHT7-024-107
“You don’t know the forces this could let loose. You don’t realize the forces this could let loose in this country you know. You know this fellow was a god damn demagogue. Hatemonger. And he could let loose horrible forces.

THE WHITE HOUSE IS DESPERATE FOR ANY INFORMATION ABOUT THE SHOOTER.

**Chief of Staff H.R. “Bob” Haldeman *** WHT4-024-095
The key thing now is the identity of the assailant and all the particulars on him before they start putting it out to the press.

WHAT HAPPENS OVER NEXT FEW HOURS THOUGH, IS THE START OF A DISTURBING AND LITTLE-KNOWN CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY THAT IS ALSO A REMARKABLE FORESHADOWING OF THE WATERGATE BREAK-IN THAT LED TO NIXON’S DOWNFALL.

**** Richard Nixon *** WHT7-024-107
“We have got to get a hold of this thing you understand the record is being made now.”

LET ME BACK UP FOR A SECOND, YOU SEE, NIXON NOT ONLY WANTED TO WIN IN 1972, BUT HE WANTED TO WIN A LANDSLIDE. NIXON SAW HIMSELF AS A UNIFIER OF AMERICA.

***Dan Carter***
He was going to end the war in Vietnam. He was going to bring Americans together. I know that seems hard to believe looking back. But that was how he planned to run that 1972 campaign.

WALLACE’S SHOOTING TERRIFIED NIXON, HE FEARED BREMER MIGHT HAVE TIES TO NIXON’S RE-ELECTION CAMPAIGN AND THAT THE MEDIA WOULD TRY TO BLAME THE REPUBLICAN PARTY.

***WHT4-024-095***
“I think the guy has to be a nut of some kind. Let’s hope is a left-wing nut not a right-wing nut.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
They didn’t know anything about him, Nixon was terrified this guy Arthur Bremmer maybe had been one of his supporters. And nothing could have been more disastrous for Nixon.

***Luke Nitcher***
We are less than six months out from Nixon’s re-election. So I think he is absolutely concerned not just the stories that week in the media but also but what are the potential long term themes that come out of this, and might resonate.

DRIVEN BY FEAR AND PARANOIA, NIXON REPEATEDLY TELLS HIS STAFF TO LIE TO THE PRESS AND SAY THAT BREMER WAS A SUPPORTER OF THE LIKELY DEMOCRATIC NOMINEE GEORGE MCGOVERN AND LIBERAL STALWART SENATOR TED KENNEDY.

*** Richard Nixon *** WHT8-339-004
“get a report to Clawson that the guy was a left-wing political junkie. They say he was a supporter of Kennedy. Kennedy and McGovern.

SOME TIME LATER IN THE EVENING, A FURIOUS NIXON RAISED IT AGAIN.

*** Richard Nixon ***WHT8-339-004
“Can we pin this on one of theirs”

*** Richard Nixon *** WHT8-339-004
“Just say he was a supporter of McGovern and Kennedy. Now just put that out. Just say you have it on ‘unmistakable evidence.’

*** Richard Nixon *** WHT8-339-004
“Screw the record. Just say he was a supporter of that and that and put it out. Just say we have an authenticated report”

***Luke Nitcher***
All of a sudden when this potential spot light is enlarged on Wallace, a potential challenger on Nixon’s right, I think Nixon has to divert his attention very quickly to what this could mean for his own political fortunes.”

BUT LYING TO THE PRESS ABOUT BREMER WAS ONLY THE START.
RICHARD NIXON AND CHARLES COLSON CAME UP WITH ANOTHER PLAN – A CRIMINAL PLAN -TO PLANT PRO-MCGOVERN LITERATURE IN ARTHUR BREMER’S MILWAUKEE APARTMENT.

THE AUDIO IS HARD TO UNDERSTAND -I KNOW – BUT HAVE A LISTEN – AND PROFESSOR CARTER WILL EXPLAIN WHAT YOU ARE HEARING AFTERWARDS

***Charles Colson***
“they have been through his apartment. They have found a lot of the stuff he has written. He is obviously demented.”

***Richard Nixon***
“is he a left winger or a right winger.”
“well he is going to be a left winger by the time we are through with him I think.”

**Richard Nixon**
“Oh good keep at that. Keep at that.”

***Charles Colson***
“Yeah, I just wish god, we had got there sooner planted a little literature up there. But it may be a little late. Although I’ve got one source that maybe, Sure we could think about that, if they find it by his apartment that would be helpful.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
This is what is so astonishing about the attempted assassination of Wallace, with in two hours Charles Colson, Nixon’s advisor and Nixon feverously talking, continuously came up with a plan to send a former CIA operative to Milwaukee which is where Arthur Bremer’s home was, the would be assassin and plant McGovern material in Arthur Bremer’s apartment.

THAT FORMER CIA OPERATIVE WAS E. HOWARD HUNT,

YOU MIGHT KNOW HIM FROM ANOTHER CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY – WATERGATE

HUNT, ALONG WITH G. GORDON LIDDY, HELPED PLAN AND CARRY OUT THE BREAK-IN OF THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE JUST A MONTH LATER.

HUNT WROTE IN HIS 1974 AUTOBIOGRAPHY, UNDERCOVER, THAT COLSON ASKED HIM TO FLY TO MILWAUKEE AND BREAK INTO BREMMER’S APARTMENT TO PLANT EVIDENCE.

HUNT SAID HE WAS SKEPTICAL HE COULD GET PAST AUTHORITIES WATCHING ON THE APARTMENT-
BUT THAT COLSON WAS INSISTENT HE TRY.

HUNT PACKED A BAG, WHICH INCLUDED HIS – GET THIS- CIA ISSUED DISGUISE KIT AND BEGAN TO HEAD TO THE AIRPORT TO CATCH THE LAST FLIGHT TO MILWAUKEE. RIGHT BEFORE HE WAS SET TO LEAVE, HIS TRIP WAS CALLED OFF.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
Just as he is getting ready to get on the plane they learn from the head of the FBI, that FBI agents on their own have seized the apartment and locked it up

*** Dr Dan Carter***
and so there is no way then to plant any evidence

THINK ABOUT THIS PLOT- THE NIXON WHITE HOUSE WAS ATTEMPTING TO INTERFERE IN A FEDERAL INVESTIGATION AND OBSTRUCT JUSTICE TO HELP NIXON’S RE-ELECTION EFFORT.

WHEN THEY ARE PLANNING THIS BREAK-IN, THEY DON’T KNOW IF WALLACE WOULD SURVIVE OR IF THERE WAS ANY LARGER CONSPIRACY BEHIND HIS ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT.

NIXON DIDN’T CARE. HE ONLY SAW THE 1972 ELECTION. NOT AN POTENTIAL ASSASSINATION CONSPIRACY.

THAT WAS HOW DESPERATE NIXON WAS TO GAIN A FLEETING ADVANTAGE OVER MCGOVERN.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
I think it would have been so devastating to realize you have the president of the United States engaging in this extraordinary conspiracy to destroy his opponent

THIS VIRTUALLY UNKNOWN CONSPIRACY WAS CRIMINAL AND RECKLESS. AND ORCHESTRATED FROM THE OVAL OFFICE.

IT ALL SOUNDS A LITTLE FAMILIAR RIGHT?

PART VII:

GEORGE WALLACE WOULD SPEND THE REST OF HIS LIFE PARALYZED AND IN A WHEELCHAIR.

HE RAN FOR PRESIDENT UNSUCCESSFULLY IN 1976, AND WAS ELECTED GOVERNOR OF ALABAMA FOR TWO MORE TERMS AFTER HIS SHOOTING.

THE ONE TIME FACE OF SEGREGATION TRIED LATER IN LIFE TO DISTANCE HIMSELF FROM HIS PREVIOUS STANCES ON RACE.

*** George Wallace ***
I believed it was in the best interest of white and black to be in a segregated school system. But I was wrong.

WALLACE EVEN ASKED A BLACK CHURCH FOR FORGIVENESS SHORTLY BEFORE HIS DEATH IN 1998.

WALLACE IT SEEMS, WAS UNCOMFORTABLE WITH THE LEGACY HE HAD SPENT DECADES BUILDING.

THE POLITICAL REALITY WAS IN THE IN 1980S HE NEEDED BLACK VOTERS IN ORDER TO WIN ELECTIONS.

IN THE 20TH CENTURY, THERE REALLY WAS NO POLITICIAN QUITE LIKE GEORGE WALLACE.

WITH HIS “STAND UP FOR AMERICA” MANTRA AND STATE’S RIGHTS IDEOLOGY, WALLACE’S VISCERAL POPULISM TAPPED INTO WHITE AMERICA’S ANXIETIES ABOUT RACE AND THE DECLINE OF COUNTRY.

THESE THEMES WOULD CONTINUE TO BE THE FLASH POINT OF AMERICAN POLITICS LONG AFTER HE STEPPED AWAY FROM VIEW.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
George Wallace lays out many of the divisive social issues that come to dominate American politics

MODERN BACKLASH POPULISM ORIGINATED WITH WALLACE, AND INFLUENCED POLITICIANS FROM JIMMY CARTER TO RONALD REAGAN TO PAT BUCHANAN TO DONALD TRUMP.

*** Dr Dan Carter***
The temptation is always to use the Wallace message to drive these social wedges. Whether it is about religion, whether it is about race, whether it is about ethnicity to mobilize your supporters to create the kind of fear that Wallace always tried to create in his audience.

IT HAS BEEN SAID, REAGAN TRIED TO DOMESTICATED THE WALLACE CROWD, ONLY TO HAVE DONALD TRUMP UNLEASHED THEM.

***B Drummond Ayres ***
I see a lot of Wallace in him. I just don’t mean racism. It is the way Wallace could play a crowd, it is the way Trump can play a crowd. They were both good a playing crowds.

LIKE TRUMP, WALLACE TAPPED INTO A DARK PART OF AMERICA’S PSYCHE AND LIBERATED IT.

***B Drummond Ayres ***
Them, coming up across the border. It smacks of George Wallace
***B Drummond Ayres *** 29:58
It is the same sort of play that Trump is using. Them, them, them.

BUT FOR ALL OF HIS FIST POUNDING AND BELLICOSE RACIAL RHETORIC, OUTSIDE OF ALABAMA, WALLACE LOST ELECTIONS – A LOT OF THEM.

THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT HAS LARGELY WON THE DAY IN AMERICA. WE ARE SLOWLY MOVING TOWARDS THAT MOVE PERFECT UNION THAT THE FOUNDING FATHERS DESCRIBED IN THE PREAMBLE OF THE CONSTITUTION.

WALLACE’S ONLY POLITICAL SUCCESS WAS STANDING UP AND FIGHTING, NOT OVERCOMING AND SUCCEEDING. WALLACE PROMISED REVENGE. BUT NOT MUCH MORE THAN THAT.

HE MAY HAVE SAID THE THINGS “SOME WHITES WERE THINKING”

BUT IN TERMS OF ELECTORAL POLITICS THERE WEREN’T ENOUGH WHITES THINKING THE THINGS HE WAS SAYING FOR WALLACE TO WIN

****END*******

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